The dado has its own entablature, with a frieze in black marble. The impressive late Baroque work features a naked bearded Genius draping a yellow marble sarcophagus with a white marble curtain, and a medallion portrait of the cardinal inset into a grey-green marble obelisk above. There has been a reduction in the number of Sunday Masses recently. This one, after he took the place of Peter, left the world by his death after a propitius space [of time]. The latter were being brought into the city, as the suburban catacombs were abandoned in the face of threats from various marauders. The pilasters of this storey are Doric, and the frieze of the entablature has metopes with Eucharistic symbols. These were designed in 1650 by Alessandro Algardi, and executed by his school led by Antonio Raggi and Giovanni Antonio De Rossi. The exhibits are obviously mostly liturgical items and vestments, some of the latter being Renaissance in date and the earliest being the so-called Cope of St Sylvester which is late 13th century. Right of altar, Justice and putti by Giuseppe Lironi, relief showing St Andrew Corsini Refusing the Episcopate by Sigismondo Adami in memory of Cardinal Neri Corsini the Younger. In 1674, the Ceva family commissioned Carlo Rainaldi to restore the Chapel of St Ventantius, replacing the old altar in the process. The fresco fragment is attributed to Giotto, although there has been a lot of argument about this. It is now thought that there was one long campaign lasting about thirty years, from the reign of Pope Sixtus III (432-40) through that of Pope Leo the Great (440-61) and ending in that of Pope Hilary (461-8). This stand-alone edifice is now usually simply known as the Scala Santa. Behind the statue is a Gothic arched doorway, which actually leads into the scavi although never used nowadays. The Lateran is a well-defined locality in an area of 19th century suburban development of little more interest than the vineyards that it replaced. The Cosmatesque floor is from the 14th century, a late example of this technique. There follows the entrance lobby to the palace, designed by Fontana but altered by Borromini. It had a distinguished member in one Plautius Lateranus, who narrowly escaped with his life and phallus after having sex with Messalina the wife of Emperor Claudius but was then executed by Nero for suspicion of involvement in the conspiracy of Piso. To the side are voids left after excavations under the chapel, which allow you to see the original mosaic pavement of the 2nd century bath-house which was here before the baptistery. The one reborn is at no separation from those made one; one fountain, one spirit, one faith. The ornate Baroque altar has a frontal in verde antico with inlaid details in giallo antico. St Peter's is the preferred location for the exercise of the pope's universal authority over the entire Church, but St John Lateran is the location of the source of that authority. Piety is listed as being by Stocchi, and Faith by Bezzi. Each arcade of five arches has four pairs of Corinthian columns standing on a continuous wall-plinth, and two pairs of semi-columns attached to the piers on each side. The famous apse mosaic is often described as "preserved" -it was not, but was copied and that not very well. The conch of the apse containing the cathedra had a mosaic featuring vine-scrolls in gold. Kaiser Konstantin war derjenige Kaiser, der durch die Mailänder Vereinbarung im Jahr 313 die Religionsfreiheit im Römischen Reich einführte, darunter also auch das Christentum. ), to the left Cardinal Angelico de Grimoard. The altarpiece is a Calvary by Girolamo Siciolante, Il Sermoneta. This last feature was drawn by Heemskerck, but without a mosaic (the idea of the curve is that a mosaic would not seem fore-shortened to somebody standing in front of the door). To each side of this are gilded flying angels, one holding a cross and the other, a palm branch. This was a real tragedy, as the chapel and its atrium were highly decorated. Background detailing was done by Ferraù Fenzoni and Paul Bril (the latter especially the landscapes). The roofline frieze bearing the heraldic emblems of Pope Alexander VII is by Borromini. These will do for most purposes -but s… (They also made a set of doors for the palace, which have survived and are kept in the basilica's cloisters.) The items from the original memorial are the epitaph, a bronze coat-of-arms above this and two flanking statues in scallop-topped niches which portray allegories of Temperance and Prudence. The vault has four stucco relief tondi, uncoloured, by Filippo Carcani, Il Filippone. Pope Gregory XVI (1831–1846) set up the Museo Profano Lateranense here in 1844, the collection comprising pagan Roman statues, relief sculptures and mosaics. The ancient sculptures in the Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano, including the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, were donated to the city and taken to the Campodoglio in 1558. The memorials on the piers are as follows: Girolamo Garimberto 1575, with a good portrait bust of this impressively bearded bishop. Above each arch, except the central two again, is a large rectangular window flanked by Ionic pilasters with the capitals incorporating women's heads and supporting an omega cornice. The interior is now grim, a rectangular box in naked red brick with a polychrome marble floor having a central roundel commemorating Blessed Pope Paul VI. In the earlier 20th century it was much more formal, with low box hedges. Pope John was a Dalmatian himself, and seeing that the Slavs where overrunning his country he brought the relics of the more important Dalmatian saints here and enshrined them. Before the late 19th century, the sanctuary apse opened onto the transept. The quarrying and transport of this very hard stone from such a remote and hostile location was a major undertaking, and the use of the stone was a monopoly of the emperor. Borromini provided a cenotaph and included the salvaged epigraph tablet, but this aedicule was also destroyed when the Hungarians provided the present monument in 1907, the architect being Gzila Nalder. The baptistery amounts to a complex of buildings separate from the basilica, and before the late 19th century was entirely detached (although there was shoddy vernacular building between it and the Loggia of Benedictions in the 18th century). 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