He was a lover of war, who led his own armies; and a lover of art, commissioning some of the greatest works in western history: Raphael's decorated rooms in the Vatican and Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling. In the novel Q by Luther Blissett, Julius appears toward the end of the book as a moderate cardinal favouring religious tolerance, in the upheavals caused by the Reformation and the Roman Church's response during the 16th century. His patronage of Renaissance thought led him to reform the Roman University, to build the Church of St. Andrew in Rome, and to appoint Palestrina choirmaster of St. Peter’s, with Michelangelo as the church’s principal architect. Pope Julius III (Latin: Julius Tertius; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 222nd Pope from February 1550 until his death in 1555. As a cardinal, he served as co-president of the Council of Trent in 1545, with cardinals Cervini (later Pope Marcellus II) and Pole. All the way up to the sixteenth century, there have been at least another 16 pedophile Popes known to historians, the last being a certain Pope Julius III (1487-1555). Shortly before his death, Julius dispatched Cardinal Giovanni Morone to represent the interests of the Holy See at the Peace of Augsburg. During his pontificate, Catholicism was restored in England under Queen Mary in 1553. He attempted to stop cardinals from receiving too many benefices and to restore monastic discipline. The pope died and political unrest followed. Which of these artists designed the Great Grotto in Boboli Gardens? In 1511, monk Martin Luther visited Roma. 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The Innocenzo scandal Julius’s papacy […] At the Sack of Rome (1527) he was one of the hostages given by Pope Clement VII to the Emperor's forces, and barely escaped execution. , Henry had threatened to withdraw recognition from the Pope if the new Pope was pro-Habsburg in orientation, and when Julius III reconvened the Council of Trent, Henry blocked French bishops from attending and did not enforce the papal decrees in France.  Pope Paul III made him Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina in 1536 and employed him in several important legations, notably as papal legate and first president of the Council of Trent (1545/47) and then at Bologna (1547/48). But, when Farnese applied to France for aid against the emperor, Julius allied himself with the emperor, declared Farnese deprived of his fief, and sent troops under the command of his nephew Giambattista del Monte to co-operate with Duke Gonzaga of Milan in the capture of Parma. Pope Julius II, also from a powerful family, is sympathetic to their plight. Giuliano's chance of being elected was now better than at any previous election. Julius III, POPE (GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE), b. at Rome, September 10, 1487; d. there, March 23, 1555. Elected pope on Feb. 7, 1550, he realized that a reform of the church was urgent, and he appointed a commission that recommended resumption of the Council of Trent, which Julius reopened on May 1, 1551. Updates? However, Julius soon came to terms with the duke and France and in 1553 suspended the meetings of the council. He was a friend of the Jesuits, to whom he granted a fresh confirmation in 1550; and through the papal bull, Dum sollicita of August 1552, he founded the Collegium Germanicum, and granted an annual income.. Julius II is known to be a causing contributor to the reformation, as his focus on the arts and politics alienated northern Europe. 4) The pope who was called “a demon from Hell” 5) … Julius showered his favourite with benefices, including the commendatario of the abbeys of Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy and Saint Zeno in Verona, and, later, of the abbeys of Saint Saba, Miramondo, Grottaferrata and Frascati, among others. The cardinals Reginald Pole and Giovanni Carafa warned the pope of the "evil suppositions to which the elevation of a fatherless young man would give rise". 216 th Pontiff (1503-1513). His uncle enabled the future Julius to study under the Franciscans in Perugia. The ideal he set himself to realise was an existence of animal gratification untrammelled by any unpleasant duties. When his uncle exchanged this see for a position as a Cardinal in 1511, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte succeeded in Manfredonia in 1512. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. What is the Tempietto, seen below? Heraldic symbols of Pope Julius III Bologna was the second city of the Papal State but retains very few coats of arms, because in 1797, under the influence of the French Revolution, all signs of the Popes were destroyed. Pope Julius III had a great interest in this construction and spent huge amounts of money for the completion of the town. As rumours began to circle about the particular relationship between the pope and his adoptive nephew, Julius refused to take advice. The Venetian ambassador at that time reported that Innocenzo shared the pope's bed. As a cardinal, he served as co-president of the Council of Trent in 1545, with cardinals Cervini (later Pope Marcellus II) and Pole. With the help of some judicious simony, Giuliano was elected to succeed Pius on September 22, 1502. In 1551, at the request of Emperor Charles V, he consented to the reopening of the council of Trent and entered into a league against the duke of Parma and Henry II of France (1547–59), causing the War of Parma.  Ottavio Farnese, whose support had been crucial to the election, was immediately confirmed as Duke of Parma. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. , Julius increasingly contented himself with Italian politics and retired to his luxurious palace at the Villa Giulia, which he had built for himself close to the Porta del Popolo. He lived mostly in a beautiful villa just outside the Porta del Popolo. In one of his first undertakings as pope, the besotted Julius rewarded the uneducated and … , At the start of his reign Julius had seriously desired to bring about a reform of the Catholic Church and to reconvene the Council of Trent, but very little was actually achieved during his five years in office. Innocenzo del Monte was a teenaged beggar found in the streets of Parma who was hired by the family as a lowly hall boy in their primary residence, the boy's age being variously given as 14, 15, or 17 years. Glorified in Perugia A tomb for Pope Julius. 2) The pope who had an affair that led to a son (who would also become pope) 3) The shocking and evil scandal of Pope Julius III. In Italy, it was said that Julius showed the impatience of a "lover awaiting a mistress" while awaiting Innocenzo's arrival in Rome and boasted of the boy's prowess in bed, while the Venetian ambassador reported that Innocenzo Del Monte shared the pope's bed "as if he [Innocenzo] were his [Julius'] own son or grandson. Julius III was a Tuscan, which explained Cosimo de Medici's anxiety to secure his election. Pope Julius III reigned over the papal court, entirely at the mercy of his young lover. He was choleric but had a good-natured and forgiving disposition. Like his father, who was a well-known jurist, he studied law. Yet the façade of Palazzo Comunale still shows, disguised as decorations, the symbols of Julius III. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Pope, (Latin papa, from Greek pappas, “father”), the title, since about the 9th century, of the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. Born Giuliano della Rovere on December 5, 1443 in Albissola (in the Savona region), he was the nephew of the future Pope Sixtus IV, Francesco della Rovere. IV, (The American Philosophical Society, 1984), 603. A patron of the arts, he commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. "Julius III". The portrait shows Giuliano della Rovere, Pope Julius II, elected in 1503 after one of the shortest conclaves ever (he bribed everyone). glbtq.com. The new pope took the name of Julius III. Unfortunately, military and political problems led to its second suspension in 1552. " "The charitably-disposed told themselves the boy might after all be simply his bastard son. 13 terms. In 1520, del Monte also became Bishop of Pavia. Thomas Beard, in the Theatre of God's judgement (1597) saying it was Julius' "custome ... to promote none to ecclesiastical livings, save only his buggerers". Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II, 1511, oil on poplar, 108.7 x 81 cm (National Gallery, London) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker. ! E. Joe Johnson, Idealized male friendship in French narrative from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, p69. Why was it so shocking when Pope Julius II wanted to demolish St. Peter's Basilica? ... Art History: The Movement III: Painting. , Poet Joachim du Bellay, who lived in Rome through this period in the retinue of his relative, Cardinal Jean du Bellay, expressed his scandalized opinion of Julius in two sonnets in his series Les regrets (1558), hating to see, he wrote, "a Ganymede with the red hat on his head".  In February 1555, an envoy was dispatched from the English Parliament to Julius to inform him of the country's formal submission, but the pope died before the envoy reached Rome. His reputation, and that of the Catholic Church, were greatly harmed by his scandal-ridden relationship with his adopted nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte. Positions in the Church Omissions? Pope Julius III (1550–1555) He was accused of having a love affair with his nephew. A fountain or pool. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. The pope's lack of interest in political or ecclesiastical affairs caused dismay among his contemporaries. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Buontalenti. The Romans proclaimed that if Pope Julius II had not been a great pope, he had been a good king.. Giuliano della Rovere, born in poverty at Albisola in Liguria in 1443, became one of the most powerful of the Renaissance popes. This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 17:25. As pope, he took some half hearted stabs at reforming what had become a notoriously corrupt Catholic Church, but he much preferred to … Following the death of Pope John XII on 9 March 2015, a papal conclave elected Ciano as his successor on 15 March. After the elevation of Julius to the papacy, Innocenzo Del Monte was adopted into the family by the pope's brother and, by Julius, was then promptly created cardinal-nephew. Pope Julius II. Matthias Wivel, our Curator of 16th-century Italian paintings, gives a talk about the portrait of Julius II by Raphael. ", Despite the damage which the scandal was inflicting on the church, it was not until after Julius' death in 1555 that anything could be done to curb Innocenzo's visibility. He spent the bulk of his time, and a great deal of papal money, on entertainments at the Villa Giulia, created for him by Vignola, but more significant and lasting was his patronage of the great Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whom he brought to Rome as his maestro di cappella, Giorgio Vasari, who supervised the design of the Villa Giulia, and Michelangelo, who worked there. The Farnese cardinal’s diplomatic skills made him an invaluable aid to the five pontiffs in whose election he participated—Pius III, Julius II, Leo X, Adrian VI, and Clement VII—before he himself emerged as the Roman pontiff on Oct. 13, 1534.  The courtier and poet Girolamo Muzio in a letter of 1550 to Ferrante Gonzaga, governor of Milan, wrote: "They write many bad things about this new pope; that he is vicious, proud, and odd in the head", and the Pope's enemies made capital of the scandal. , Julius' papacy was marked by scandals, the most notable of which is centered around the pope's adoptive nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte. In fulfilment of promises made in the conclave, Julius restored Parma to Ottavio Farnese a few days after his accession. He allegedly had a long love affair with Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte, his adoptive nephew, which was a cause of public scandal. The new pope took the name of Julius III. Expecting to find the New Jerusalem, he found an open sewer instead! In fulfilment of promises made in the conclave, Julius restored Parma to Ottavio Farnese a few days after his accession. Ludwig von Pastor, The History of the Popes, Germany. Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Julius-III, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Pope Julius III. It was formerly given, especially from the 3rd to the 5th century, to any bishop and sometimes to simple priests as an ecclesiastical title…. Julius III, born Giovanni Maria del Monte, Roman Catholic Pope from 1550 to 1555, was born on the 10th of September 1487. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Which of the following features could be found in more exotic grottos? From there he passed the time in comfort, emerging from time to time to make timid efforts to reform the Church through the reestablishment of the reform commissions. The sick and aged Francesco Piccolomini ascended the papal throne as Pius III, but died on 18 October, 1503, after a reign of only twenty-six days. He attended the universities of Perugia and Siena. "Pope Julius III." Julius sent Cardinal Reginald Pole as legate with powers that he could use at his discretion to help the restoration succeed. With his help, the cousins assemble an army. To ensure his success he made great promises to the cardinals, and did not hesitate to … He was buried in Rome in the Del Monte family chapel. Pope Julius III (Latin: Iulius III; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. Birth and Education. The Farnese faction, loyal to the family of the previous Pope, supported the election of Paul III's grandson, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, and also the family's claim to the Duchy of Parma, which was contested by Emperor Charles V. Neither the French nor the Germans favoured del Monte, and the Emperor had expressly excluded him from the list of acceptable candidates, but the French were able to block the other two factions, allowing del Monte to promote himself as a compromise candidate and be elected on 7 February 1550. Pope Julius II was head of the Roman Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Even after Julius III suspended the Council again he proceeded to bully the pope into taking his side against the Habsburgs by threatening schism.  His inactivity during the last three years of his pontificate may have been caused by the frequent and severe attacks of gout. In the mid-16th century with the Inquisition, the Catholic Church began to cover … It was considered to be one of the holiest sights in Europe USA, 2003, Hor di questo nuovo papa universalmente se ne dice molto male; che egli è vitioso, superbo, rotto et di sua testa", Lettere di Girolamo Muzio Giustinopolitano conservate nell'archivio governativo di Parma, Deputazione di Storia Patria, Parma 1864, p. 152, See The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Biographical Dictionary – Pope Julius III (1550–1555) – Consistory of 30 May 1550 (I) for a summary of Innocenzo Del Monte's life based on Francis Burkle-Young and Michael Leopoldo Doerrer's authoritative biography, "The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte", Ott, Michael. They head for Florence. It was built as a resting place for the pope and was conceived as a place of entertainment rather than as permanent home. PRE-PAPAL BACKGROUND . Julius III, original name Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, (born Sept. 10, 1487, Rome [Italy]—died March 23, 1555, Rome), pope from 1550 to 1555. One outcome of the cardinal-nephew scandal, however, was the upgrading of the position of Papal Secretary of State, as the incumbent had to take over the duties Innocenzo Del Monte was unfit to perform: the Secretary of State eventually replaced the cardinal-nephew as the most important official of the Holy See.. Julius III, original name Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, (born Sept. 10, 1487, Rome [Italy]—died March 23, 1555, Rome), pope from 1550 to 1555. He chose Julius as his papal name in honor of Pope Julius III (1940-1952). Historical Events. The Borgia pope was followed by Pius III, who lived only a month after taking the chair. He tried to use his connections in the College of Cardinals to plead his cause, but his influence waned, and he died in obscurity. Julius III (1487 – 1555), was a career diplomat who became pope and head of the Papal States from 1550 until his death five years later. , Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte was born in Monte San Savino. During his career, he distinguished himself as a brilliant canonist rather than as a theologian.. He was educated by the humanist Raffaele Brandolini Lippo, and later studied law at Perugia and Siena. He underwent temporary banishment following the murder of two men who had insulted him, and then again following the rape of two women. Distinguished as a effective diplomat, he was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate. After a career as a distinguished and effective diplomat, he was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate after the death of Paul III. He was the son of a famous Roman jurist, studied jurisprudence at Perugia and Siena, and theology under the Dominican, Ambrosius Catharinus. Del Monte was the nephew of Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Archbishop of Manfredonia (1506–1511). He chose his papal name, not in honour of Pope Julius I, but in emulation of Julius Caesar. Distinguished as an effective diplomat, he was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate after the death of Paul III. Pope Julius III : biography 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555 Shortly before his death, Julius dispatched Cardinal Giovanni Morone to represent the interests of the Holy See at the Peace of Augsburg.Kenneth Meyer Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571, Vol. Pope Julius III (Latin: Iulius III; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. Achievements as pope. Crompton, Louis (2004). 1) The pope who dug up his predecessor and mutilated his corpse.